Greek Translation

Consumption of renewable energy sources is estimated to grow by 2.3% per year between 1990 and 2010, compared with 1.6% annual growth in overall energy consumption.

Consumption of hydroelectricity and other renewables combined is expected to be between 37 and 47 quadrillion BTU in 2010. In 2010 renewable energy sources are projected to account for 9% of the total world energy consumption. Hydroelectricity remains a small factor in terms of world energy consumption, but it is important regionally.

In the USA, consumption of renewables is expected to grow more slowly than the rest of the world (2% per year over the period 1990-2010); and most of the U.S. growth is attributable to renewable sources other than hydroelecticity.

Nearly two-thirds of the homes in the province of Quebec are all electric; and most of their electicity supply is provided by hydropower. Quebec province has the most extensive hydroelectric development. The provincial utility, Hydro Quebec, is the seco nd largest provider of electricity in Canada, with a generating capacity of 27 gigawatts.

About 22% of the total world demand for hydroelectricity is attributed to Western Europe. Most practical hydroelectric resources have already been exploited in this region, and little further development is expected. Currently, France, Norway and Sweden account for more than half of the total hydroelectricity consumption in Western Europe. In 1993, these contries together consumed 257 of the 479 billion kilowatthours generated in the region. Demand for renewable energy in Western Europe is expected to grow to 7.6 quadrillion BTU by 2015 and increase of more than 1.8% per year.

Yellowtail Dam, on the Bighorn River in easter Montana

Studies show Greece can produce hydroelectricity up to 21 billion KWH. So far only 25% of this energy is used with 12 big and 8 small hydroelectric stations totalling 2514 MW. There are 6 hydroelectric stations under construction wi th a total power of 763 Mwatts.

The Hydroelectric plant of Kremasta in Greece is 437 Mwatts. The dam is built at Achelos river. The annual production is 1.5 billion Kwh. This dam is said to be the highest in Europe at 160 M.

There is a second dam at the same river called Kastraki Station. There are four(4) hydrogenerators at this dam of 320 Mwatts each. The four(4) together produce 1 billion Kwh annually.

Anoter dam in Greece is that of Pournari of Arachthos river. There are three(3) hydrogenerators at thsi dam of 300 Mwatts and the total annual electricity production of 500 million Kwh. There is one small hydroelectric station at Agra. It s power is 50 Mwatts and its annual electricity production is 60 million Kwh.

Hydroelectric gross energy expected:
Kwatts = Q x H x F
Q = Flow in Litres/second
H = Head in meters
F = Efficiency which varies according to the flow, turine and head. This varies between 50-90%. For a rough calculation use F = 6.

Use this chart to show roughly how much power your stream or river will generate.
Power Output (watts)
Flow Rate (GPM)
Head (feet) 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 150 200 300
5 5 8 10 15 20 30 40
10 7 12 18 23 30 45 60 80 100
15 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100 125 150 200
20 8 16 25 32 50 65 85 125 170 210 275 350
30 12 25 35 45 70 90 120 180 240 300 400 500
40 16 32 48 60 95 125 160 240 320 450 600
50 20 40 60 80 120 160 200 300 400 600
75 30 60 90 120 180 240 300 450 600
100 40 80 120 160 240 320 400 600
150 60 120 180 240 360 480 600
200 80 160 240 320 480 640
300 120 240 360 480 720
400 160 320 480 640

For Greece
Electricity (Million Killowatts, Billion Kilowatt Hours and Quadrillion Btu) For 1995
Capacity Generation
    (Million KW) (Billion KWH) (Quads)     (Billion KWH) (Quads)
Hydroelectric 2.208 3.314 0.0345 Total Imports 1.400 0.0146
Nuclear 0.000 0.000 0.000 Total Exports 0.600 0.0062
Geothermal/Other 0.027 0.031 0.0003 Losses 2.717
Thermal 6.371 35.469
Totals 8.606 38.814 Consumption 36.897
From: Energy Information Administration

The outlook for solar thermal and photovaltaic applications is favorable in some regions (such as Greece, Italy, and Southern Spain). Most of the countries in the EC are actively pursuing the incorporation of wind power into their grid systems. Announced plans and reasonable projections indicate that more than 4,000 megawatts of wind power will be operational by year 2000. The Electric Power Research Institute (E.P.R.I) estimates that the newly installed wind capacity could represent a $4 billion market between 1990 and 2000, or an average of $400 million annually (assuming $1,000 per kilowatt of installed capacity).

Laos earns first 600,000 dollars off controversial hydropower plant.
Posted : Tue, 20 Jul 2010 04:55:41 GMT

Vientiane, Laos - The Lao government earned 600,000 dollars off the Nam Theun II hydropower plant last month, its first revenue from the ecologically controversial project, project sources said Tuesday.
According to a joint report issued by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, two of the main sponsors of the 2-billion-dollar project, the Lao government received the money from the plant owners in June.
The payment came two months after Nam Theun II (NT2) commenced commercial operations.
The plant, located in Hinboun district, Khammouane province, was opposed by environmentalists and human rights groups concerned about the dam's impact on downstream fisheries, watersheds and the relocation of 6,000 villagers.Laos, one of the world's poorest countries, has few other sources of revenue other than hydro-electricity, which is exported to neighbouring Thailand.
Government revenues from the plant are expected to reach 6.5 million dollars by late September, the banks' report said.
The money is earmarked to finance poverty reduction and development programmes in Laos, one of the World Bank's conditions which has acted as a guarantor for loans to the project.
"With close to three quarters of the population of Laos still living on less than 2 dollars a day, the money generated by the NT2 is providing a significant boost to the country's economy and helping improve people's lives," said John Roome, Word Bank Director for Sustainable Development in the East Asia & Pacific Region.
Over the 25-year concession period, the country will receive nearly 2 billion dollars in revenues from the project, which is jointly owned by consortium comprising Electricite de France SA (35 per cent), the Goverment of Laos and two Thai companies, the Electricty Generating Public Co (EGO) and the Italian-Thai Development PCL (ITD), each holding a 25-per-cent share.

Copyright DPA

Complete liberalisation in the energy in Greece asks the International Organism of Energy (IEO).
By euro2day.grComplete liberalisation in the energy in Greece.

Complete liberalisation of energy market asks from Greece the director of International Organism of Energy (IEO) Mr. Klaud Mantil. In the study on the energy developments in Greece DOE proposes reduction of shares of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL COMPANY and NATIONAL GAS COMPANY, so that is created real competition in the markets of electric energy and natural gas. Specifically for the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL COMPANY it proposes the publication of decree that will impose to decrease of its share in the market in concrete percentage and deadline. Proposes also, DESMIE acquires from the NATIONAL ELECTRICAL COMPANY - not only the management, that it has now - but also the property of constant. Also, opening of market of lignite and in private individuals, but also increase of tariffs in the islands of electric current where the cost of production is high. Propose also restriction of attendance of oil stin economy, direct concretisation of policies for saving of energy and promotion of Renewable Energy, as well a drawing of emergency for the safety of supply for natural gas by danger of the international supply.
From the side of the Greek minister of Growth Mr. D. Sioufas, in presency of Mr. Mantil in common interview of press before little made explicit that will not taken measures for reduction of NATIONAL ELECTRICAL COMPANY shares through the sale of units, as well as any increases in the tariffs will be regulated by each minister of Growth in the base and responsibility for social policy. Regarding the more general proposals he said that they will be studied, while globally defented the policy that applies the government in the sector of energy, which is moved in the frame of Community directives regarding release of markets.

Small Scale Hydro in Greece.
European Commission - 28 Oct 2006
For a long time now the renewable power of water has been harnessed for a wide variety of hydraulic applications, in all parts of the world, and it is currently the most common source of renewable energy (RES) for the production of electricity.
In Greece, hydroelectric power stations produced 3,693 gigawatts/hour of electricity in 2000, compared with a total of 4,145 gigawatts/hour from RESs as a whole (including biomass, wind energy, solar power stations, photovoltaic solar arrays, geothermal energy, etc). Most of this hydroelectric power is generated by large power stations.
However, the full potential of these large power stations is already being largely exploited, or they are confronting environmental problems that limit further expansion. Even though water is a clean energy, the construction of major dams often requires the flooding of natural sites, disrupting biotopes and resulting in other negative environmental impacts. However, small hydroelectricity power stations have so far been relatively unexploited, and they have a number of potential advantages over larger stations. They do not require the construction of large-scale and expensive infrastructure, they are well suited to the needs of rural areas, and potentially, they have a much lower impact on the environment.
For this reason the Greek authorities decided to launch projects for small-scale hydroelectric power stations as part of the European Union supported programme for developing RESs. The private sector, which was given financial incentives to implement the projects, contributed 55% of the total cost. Although projects were planned throughout the country, they tended to be concentrated in regions with high hydroelectric potential. The nine projects that were completed successfully in the 1994-1999 period, with a total installed power of 11.5 megawatts, are situated in the departments of Ioannina (Anatoliki, Anthochori, Mikro Peristeri and Distrato), Arta (Theodoriana), Karditsa (Vatsounia), Serres (Agkistro) and Laconia (Selegoudi). The energy targets of these plants have been largely achieved. The construction work created temporary local employment and led to 12 permanent jobs.
The Anatoliki micro power station in Epirus is fairly typical of these smaller plants. It has an installed capacity of 700 kilowatts, for an output of 460 litres/second, and achieves an annual electricity production target of four gigawatts. Difficult meteorological and geological conditions and obstacles delayed the completion of a connecting line with the electricity mains until late 1999. However, the implementation of these projects, despite the difficulties, has promoted the transfer of experience and encouraged new applications for licences to build and run small hydroelectric power stations.

Human footprint too big for nature.
By Beijing, China/Gland, Switzerland - 24 Oct 2006
The world’s natural ecosystems are being degraded at a rate unprecedented in human history, according to a report released today by WWF, the global conservation organization.
WWF’s 2006 Living Planet Report, the group’s biennial statement on the state of the natural world, says that on current projections humanity will be using two planets’ worth of natural resources by 2050 — if those resources have not run out by then. It also confirms the trend of biodiversity loss seen in previous Living Planet reports.
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The Greek Energy System.
By National Observatory of Athens, Greece.
The total gross inland consumption in Greece has been continuously increasing, during the period 1990 – 2000, with only exception the years, 1993 and 1999. In 2000, gross inland consumption reached a total of approximately 28.5 Mtoe, presenting an increase of approximately 27% compared to 1990 level. Despite this increase, however, the average annual growth rate in the period 1990 -2000 was reduced to approximately 2.4% per year, compared to 3.3% in the 80s.
During the period 1990-2000, oil and coal products have retained the lion's share of the total energy supply. The only significant change in the Greek energy system recorded in the last decade was the introduction of natural gas in 1997, which represents the 6% of gross inland consumption in 2000. The contribution of renewable energy sources (RES), including large hydro, varies from 4.5% to 6.3% following the fluctuations of large hydropower plants. Excluding large hydro, the share of renewable energy sources increases from 3.7% in 1990 to 4.1% in 2000.
The electricity generation system in Greece consists of thermal and hydroelectric units as well as a very small percentage of other renewables. In 2000, the total installed capacity of the Public Power Corporation (PPC) generating system was 11.1 GW, resulting in an increase of 27% approximately compared to 1990 levels, while the net electrical capacity of auto-producers in 1999 was 282 MW. Electricity generation has been steadily increasing at an average annual rate of approximately 4.4% in the period 1990-2000. Gross electricity production in 2000 totalled in 53.7 TWh, of which 64% and 17% came from the combustion of coal and petroleum products, respectively, 8% from hydropower, 11% from natural gas and 1% from other (except large hydro) renewable energy sources.
Final energy demand in Greece in 2000 totalled 18.9 Mtoe, of which 24% was used in industry, 39% for transportation and 37% by the residential and tertiary sector. The mean annual increase rate for the period 1990-2000 is estimated at 2.5%. The per capita final energy consumption has increased by 20% from 1990 to 2000 (1,45 and 1,74 toe/cap respectively), while the respective figure at EU-level is estimated at 9% (from 2.54 toe/cap in 1990 to 2.78 toe/cap in 2000).
All three sectors have increased their energy use from 1990 to 2000, with residential and tertiary presenting the most significant increase by 44% in 2000 compared to 1990, followed by transportation with an increase of 24% and industry with 16%. This resulted in a total increase of 28% between 1990 and 2000.
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E R E F - European Renewable Energies Federation.
March 2004
For Greece, the following figures were used for 2002 calculations:
Gross electricity consumption : 50600 GWh
Electricity production from renewables : 880 GWh (1.74%)
Electricity production from large hydro : 3350 GWh (6.62%) (2002 was a dry year for Greece)
At the end of January 2004, the installed RES power capacity in Greece was as follows:
- Wind : 417 MW
- Small hydro : 51 MW
- Biomass : 21 MW
- Photovoltaics : 1 MW
TOTAL : 490 MW
As far as RES development by 2010 is concerned, Greece’s “Second National Report regarding penetration level of renewable energy sources in the year 2010” (published in October 2003) provides unsubstantiated and unrealistic (over-optimistic) predictions of future RES penetration in Greece. For the purposes of EREF’s down-to-earth report, the National Report’s so-called “optimistic” scenario is discarded as completely unrealistic, while the Report’s so-called “conservative” scenario is adopted as EREF’s optimistic scenario (14.5% penetration level by 2010, including large hydro).
In order to develop a more reliable scenario for Greece, the following RES capacity development has been realistically estimated for the year 2010:
- Wind : 800 MW
- Small hydro : 150 MW
- Biomass : 70 MW
- Large hydro : 3680 MW (*)
- Geothermal : 8 MW (*)
- Photovotaics : 5 MW (*)
(* Same prediction for 2010 with the National Report)
The above mix gives an overall RES electricity penetration of 12.3% for the year 2010 (including large hydro), a figure way below Greece’s target of 20.1%. Even this low figure is conditional on the continuation of the favourable national framework for RES that exists today (feed-in tariffs, capital subsidies for RES investments, etc.)

Statement on Export Credits and Hydro-Power Projects.
Paris, 15th November 2005
By Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

1. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Commission confirm the application of the Common Approaches to hydro-power projects while acknowledging in their decision that the standard practice is that such projects should in all material respects meet the requirements of the relevant aspects of all the World Bank Group Safeguard Policies.
2. These countries and the European Commission also recognise the value of the relevant aspects of other international sources of guidance, such as the draft Sustainability Guidelines produced by the International Hydropower Association and the Core Values and Strategic Priorities of the World Commission on Dams Report.
3. These countries and the European Commission undertake to consider at the time of the review of the OECD Recommendation on Common Approaches on Environment and Officially Supported Export Credits, due to take place in 2006, the extent to which it may need to be complemented with reference to other international sources of guidance.
4. The above statement does not pre-empt the conclusions of the ECG review of the OECD Recommendations on Common Approaches on Export Credits and Environment that will take place in 2006.

Failing ocean current raises fears of mini ice age.
18:00 30 November 2005 news service
By Fred Pearce

The ocean current that gives western Europe its relatively balmy climate is stuttering, raising fears that it might fail entirely and plunge the continent into a mini ice age. The dramatic finding comes from a study of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic, which found a 30% reduction in the warm currents that carry water north from the Gulf Stream. The slow-down, which has long been predicted as a possible consequence of global warming, will give renewed urgency to intergovernmental talks in Montreal, Canada, this week on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol.
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